Objective. Stressors, such as adverse life events, can cause weight changes through behavioral and biological mechanisms. Whether the accumulation of adverse life events is related to body mass index (BMI) across multiple time points from early adolescence to young adulthood has not been investigated to date. Methods. Data are from 2188 children participating at T1 (10-12 years), T3 (14-18 years), and/or T5 (21-23 years) of the prospective Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey cohort study. Adverse events before T1 and between T1, T3, and T5 were measured with a parent interview at T1 and a semistructured interview (Event History Calendar) with the adolescent at T3 and T5. An adverse events score was calculated per wave. Body mass index z-scores were determined from objectively measured height and weight using the LMS (skewness, median, and coefficient of variation) reference curves of the International Obesity Task Force for children 18 years or younger. Data were analyzed using a modified bivariate autoregressive cross-lagged structural equation model. Results. Adverse events before T1 and between T3 and T5 were related to BMI at T5 (β = 0.06, p = .001 and β = -0.04, p = .04, respectively). Specifically, health events before T1 were associated with a higher BMI at T5, and events related to relationships and victimhood events between T3 and T5 were associated with a lower BMI at T5. Conclusions. Adverse relationship and victimhood events in their recent past were related to a lower BMI in young adults, whereas adverse health events during childhood were related to a higher BMI in young adults. No relationships were found between adverse life events with BMI in children and adolescents.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of negative life events on functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents, based on data from 957 participants of the population cohort TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey. Life events experienced between age 16 and age 19 were assessed with the Kendler's Life Stress interview. FSSs at age 19 and age 16 were measured with the Youth and Adult Self-Report. The hypotheses were tested by the use of a latent change model. Life events predicted FSSs, even when adjusted for pre-event levels of FSSs, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and socio-economic status (B = 0.006, 95% CI [0.003, 0.008], β = .32). Whereas illness-related life events did not predict FSSs independently (B = -0.003, 95% CI [-0.005, 0.09], β = .05), non-illness-related life events did (B = 0.007, 95% CI [0.004, 0.010], β = .31). A past-year diagnosis of anxiety and/or depression had a significant influence on the association between life events and FSSs (B = 0.37, 95% CI [0.30, 0.46], β = .71), while female sex, exposure to childhood adversities, and family malfunctioning had not. In conclusion, our findings show that FSSs are associated with negative life events in older adolescents. We did not find evidence for stronger effects of illness-related events.
© 2016 The British Psychological Society.
Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are different classes of body mass index (BMI) development from early adolescence to young adulthood and whether these classes are related to the number of adverse life events children experienced. Methods. Data were from the TRAILS (TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey) cohort (n = 2,218). Height and weight were objectively measured five times between participants' ages 10 to 12 years and 21 to 23 years. Parents reported on the occurrence of adverse life events in their child's life in an interview when children were 10 to 12 years old. Unconditional and conditional growth mixture modeling was used for statistical analysis. Results. "Normal weight" (75.1%), "late onset overweight" (20.1%), and "early onset overweight" classes (4.8%) were identified. In analyses unadjusted for additional covariates, children who experienced a higher number of adverse events had higher odds to be in the late onset overweight (OR [95% CI] = 1.08 [1.00-1.17]) than the normal weight class, but the association was attenuated in analyses adjusted for additional covariates (OR [95% CI] = 1.07 [0.98-1.16]). Conclusions. Three BMI trajectory classes can be distinguished from early adolescence to young adulthood. The accumulation of adverse life events is not related to BMI trajectory class.
© 2017 The Obesity Society.
Background. FSS have been suggested to follow activation of the immune system, triggered by herpes virus infections. The aim of this study was to find out whether herpes virus infections were associated with the experience of FSS in adolescents, and whether this association was mediated by hsCRP, as a general marker of immune activation. Methods. This study was performed in TRAILS, a large prospective population cohort of 2230 adolescents (mean age: 16.1 years, SD = .66, 53.4% girls). FSS were assessed using the somatic complaints subscale of the Youth Self-Report. FSS were analyzed as total scores and divided in two group clusters based on previous studies in this cohort. Levels of hsCRP and antibody levels to the herpes viruses HSV1, HSV2, CMV, EBV and HHV6 were assessed in blood samples at age 16. Also a value for pathogen burden was created adding the number of viruses the adolescents were seropositive for. Multiple regression analysis with bootstrapping was used to analyze the association between viral antibodies and pathogen burden, hsCRP and FSS scores. Results. Antibody levels and pathogen burden were not associated with FSS total scores or FSS scores in both symptom groups. hsCRP was associated with the total FSS score (B = .02, 95% CI: .004 to .028, p = .01) and FSS score in the symptom group of headache and gastrointestinal complaints (B = .02, 95% CI: .001 to .039, p = .04). Conclusion. Our study showed no association between herpes virus infections and FSS in general or specific FSS symptom clusters. A role for inflammatory processes in FSS development was supported by the significant association we found between hsCRP levels and FSS, especially in the symptom group of headache and gastrointestinal complaints.