Background. The Dutch TRAILS-study focuses on the development of youth from early adolescence into adulthood. An important aspect of this development is the development of anxiety. Little was known about typical development of symptoms of anxiety over adolescence. Aim. To describe normative development of anxiety over adolescence, as well as risk indicators for high levels of anxiety. Methods. Studies were imbedded in TRAILS, a large cohort study following children (10y) into adulthood (25y). Results. Our studies show that on average levels of anxiety decrease in early adolescence and subsequently increase in middle or late adolescence, depending on the subtype of anxiety. We found child, parent and peer factors at age 10-12 that were related with higher anxiety levels. Some, e.g., parenting style, were related with higher anxiety only in early adolescence, whereas others, e.g., victim of bullying by peers were related with higher anxiety levels throughout adolescence regardless of stability of victimization. Conclusion. Our studies contribute to a better understanding of normative development of anxiety over adolescence.
here you find the earlier published article in English
Purpose. A disputed social status among peers puts children and adolescents at risk for developing a wide range of problems, such as being bullied. However, there is a lack of knowledge about which early predictors could be used to identify (young) adolescents at risk for a disputed social status. The aim of this study was to assess whether preventive child health care (PCH) findings on early childhood predict neglected and rejected status in early adolescence in a large longitudinal community-based sample. Methods. Data came from 898 participants who participated in TRAILS, a longitudinal study. Information on early childhood factors was extracted from the charts of routine PCH visits registered between infancy and age of 4 years. To assess social status, peer nominations were used at age of 10–12 years. Results. Multinomial logistic regression showed that children who had a low birth weight, motor problems, and sleep problems; children of parents with a low educational level (odds ratios [ORs] between 1.71 and 2.90); and those with fewer attention hyperactivity problems (ORs = .43) were more likely to have a neglected status in early adolescence. Boys, children of parents with a low educational level, and children with early externalizing problems were more likely to have a rejected status in early adolescence (ORs between 1.69 and 2.56). Conclusions. PCH findings on early childhood—on motor and social development—are predictive of a neglected and a rejected status in early adolescence. PCH is a good setting to monitor risk factors that predict the social status of young adolescents.