Marsman R., Nederhof E., Rosmalen J.G.M., Oldehinkel A.J., Ormel J., Buitelaar J.K. (2012). Family environment is associated with HPA-axis activity in adolescents.The TRAILS study. Biological Psychology 89 (2012) 460– 466
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the developmental programming part of the theory of biological sensitivity to context using family environmental factors and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. Specifically, we investigated whether perceived parenting (Rejection and Emotional Warmth) and socio-economic status (SES) predicted basal cortisol levels and the cortisol awakening response (CAR). In a population-based cohort of 1594 adolescents (mean age = 11.08, SD = 0.54) we assessed salivary cortisol, SES and perceived parenting. Perceived parental Emotional Warmth showed an inverse, linear association with basal cortisol levels. In addition, there was a curvilinear relationship between SES and both basal cortisol levels and the CAR. Our findings with regard to basal cortisol levels confirmed our hypothesis: lower basal HPA-axis activity in both high and low SES families compared to intermediate SES families.
Visser L, de Winter AF, Vollebergh WA, Verhulst FC, Reijneveld SA. (2012). The Impact of Parenting Styles on Adolescent Alcohol Use: The TRAILS Study. Eur Addict Res. 2012 Nov 27;19(4):165-172
Aims: To investigate the influence of parenting styles (Overprotection, Emotional Warmth, and Rejection) in early adolescence on regular alcohol use in late adolescence.
Aims: To investigate the influence of parenting styles (Overprotection, Emotional Warmth, and Rejection) in early adolescence on regular alcohol use in late adolescence. Methods: We analyzed data from the first three waves (mean ages: 11.09, 13.56 and 16.27 years, respectively) of a population-based prospective cohort study of 2230 adolescents, conducted between 2001 and 2007. Adolescents reported on parental overprotection, emotional warmth, and rejection (T1). Regular alcohol use was defined as six and seven glasses or more a week for girls and boys, respectively. We further assessed family socioeconomic status (SES), parental divorce, parental alcohol use, educational level of the adolescent, and alcohol use at baseline. Results: Parental overprotection had the strongest relationship to regular alcohol use: adolescents who perceived more parental overprotection were at increased risk of developing regular alcohol use, even after adjustment for several confounders. Rejection was not related to adolescents’ alcohol use and, after adjustment for the other variables, neither was emotional warmth. Conclusion: Overprotective parenting is a determinant of future regular adolescent alcohol use and therefore health professionals should pay particular attention to those adolescents who have overprotective parents. The role of adolescent characteristics in the relationship between overprotection and alcohol use deserves further study.