Veenstra, R., Lindenberg, S., Oldehinkel, A. J., De Winter, A. F., & Ormel, J. (2006). Temperament, environment, and antisocial behavior in a population sample of preadolescent boys and girls. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 30, 422-432.
Antisocial behavior can be triggered by negative social experiences and individuals’ processing of these experiences. This study focuses on risk-buffering interactions between temperament, perceived parenting, socio-economic status (SES), and sex in relation to antisocial behavior in a Dutch population sample of preadolescents (N=2230). Perceived parenting (overprotection, rejection, emotional warmth) was assessed by the EMBU (a Swedish acronym for My Memories of Upbringing) for Children, temperament (effortful control and frustration) by the parent version of the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised, SES by information on parental education, occupation, and income, and antisocial behavior by the Child Behavior Checklist (parent report) and the Youth Self-Report (child report). All parenting and temperament factors were significantly associated with antisocial behavior. The strongest risk-buffering interactions were found for SES which was only related to antisocial behavior among children with a low level of effortful control or a high level of frustration. Furthermore, the associations of SES with antisocial behavior were more negative for boys than for girls. Thus, the effects of SES depend on both the temperament and sex of the child.
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Oldehinkel, A. J., Veenstra, R., Ormel, J., De Winter, A. F., & Verhulst, F. C. (2006). Temperament, parenting, and depressive symptoms in a population sample of preadolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 684-695.
Background - Depressive symptoms can be triggered by negative social experiences and individuals’ processing of these experiences. This study focuses on the interaction between temperament, perceived parenting, and gender in relation to depressive problems in a Dutch population sample of preadolescents.
Methods - The sample consisted of 2230 ten-to-twelve-year-olds from the North of the Netherlands. Perceived parenting (overprotection, rejection, emotional warmth) was assessed by the EMBU (a Swedish acronym for My Memories of Upbringing) for Children, temperament (fearfulness and frustration) by the parent version of the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised, and depressive problems by the Child Behavior Checklist (parent report) and the Youth Self-Report (child report).
Results - All parenting and temperament factors were significantly associated with depressive problems. Frustration increased the depressogenic effect of parental overprotection and lack of emotional warmth. Fearfulness increased the effect of rejection in girls, but not in boys. Furthermore, the association between frustration and depression was stronger in boys.
Conclusions - These findings support the hypothesis that the effect of specific parenting behaviors depends on the temperament and gender of the child.
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Dekovic, M., ten Have, M., Vollebergh, W. A. M., Pels, T., Oosterwegel, A., Wissink, I. B. et al. (2006). The cross-cultural equivalence of parental rearing measure: EAABU-C. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 22, 85-91.
We examined the cross-cultural equivalence of a widely used instrument that assesses perceived parental rearing, the EMBU-C, among native Dutch and immigrant adolescents living in The Netherlands. The results of a multigroup confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the factor structure of the EMBU-C, consisting of three latent factors (Warmth, Rejection, and Overprotection), and reliabilities of these scales are similar in both samples. These findings lend further support for the factorial and construct validity of this instrument. The comparison of perceived child rearing between native Dutch and immigrant adolescents showed cultural differences in only one of the assessed dimensions: Immigrant adolescents perceive their parents as more overprotective than do Dutch adolescents.
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