Background. Infections with different herpes viruses have been associated with cognitive functioning in psychiatric patients and healthy adults. The aim of this study was to find out whether antibodies to different herpes viruses are prospectively associated with cognitive functioning in a general adolescent population. Methods. This study was performed in TRAILS, a large prospective general population cohort (N = 1084, 54% female, mean age 16.2 years (SD 0.6)). At age 16, immunoglobulin G antibodies against HSV1, HSV2, CMV and EBV were measured next to high sensitive C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP). Two years later, immediate memory and executive functioning were assessed using the 15 words task and the self ordered pointing task. Multiple linear regression analysis with bootstrapping was performed to study the association between viral infections and cognitive function, adjusting for gender, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and cannabis use. Results. Presence of HSV1 antibodies was associated with memory function ((B = -0.272, 95% CI = -0.556 to -0.016, p = 0.047)), while the association with executive functioning did not reach statistical significance (B = 0.560, 95% CI is -0.053 to 1.184, p = 0.075). The level of HSV1 antibodies was associated with both memory function (B = -0.160, 95% CI = -0.280 to -0.039, p = 0.014) and executive functioning (B = 0.296, 95% CI = 0.011 to 0.578, p = 0.046). Other herpes viruses and hsCRP were not associated with cognitive functioning. Conclusions. Both presence and level of HSV1 antibodies are prospectively associated with reduced cognitive performance in a large cohort of adolescents.
Objective. Maturation of executive functioning (EF) is topical, especially in relation to adolescence, yet longitudinal research covering early and late adolescence is lacking. This, however, is a prerequisite for drawing conclusions on normal cognitive development, and understanding deviant maturation. The aim of this study is to longitudinally investigate 6 subcomponents of EF in early (mean age 11) and late adolescence (mean age 19) and to investigate the influence of sex and socioeconomic status (SES). Method. We used data of the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS). A number of 2,217 participants carried out tasks of the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks (ANT), measuring Focused Attention, Inhibition, Sustained Attention, Speed of Processing, Working Memory, and Shift Attention. Results. Linear growth model with individual varying times of observation showed significant slopes for all 6 measures. Sex differences were found for the majority of the measures, where boys showed more maturation. Maturation was influenced by SES for Sustained Attention and Inhibition. Conclusion. Results show that significant maturation takes place for all the measured subcomponents over adolescence. Overall, girls show better baseline performance and smaller maturational rates, suggesting more mature skills in early adolescence. Maturation is only influenced by SES for Sustained Attention and Inhibition. Findings underline that for making statements about EF maturation in adolescence, it is essential to look at subcomponents. Furthermore, sex differences are an important factor when investing (ab)normal maturation of EF.
(c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Objective. The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) includes a considerably revised eating disorder section. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence and severity of eating disorders based on the new DSM-5 criteria in a community cohort of adolescents. Method. This study is part of TRAILS (TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey), a Dutch cohort study on mental health and social development from preadolescence into young adulthood. At baseline, the participants (n=2,230) were about 11 years old. Body mass index was measured at all four assessment waves. At age 19, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was administered to 1,584 of the participants. A two-stage screening approach was used to estimate the prevalence of DSM-5 eating disorders. Adolescents at high risk for eating disorders (n=312) were selected for an additional interview administered by eating disorder experts. Results. Of the high-risk group n=296 (95%) could be interviewed. Among the women, the lifetime prevalence of DSM-5 anorexia nervosa was 1.7%, of bulimia nervosa 0.8% and of binge eating disorder 2.3%. Eating disorders were relatively rare among the men. The severity of most cases was mild to moderate and detection and treatment rates depended on the level of severity. Discussion. The most common DSM-5 eating disorder diagnoses in adolescents in the community are anorexia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Severity ratings for eating disorders seem valid in terms of both the distribution in the community and the correlation with detection and treatment by health care services.
© 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
A study among 1,881 adolescents (52.3% girls) with a mean age of 19.1 years examined the effects of parental social status upon intrasexual competitiveness. Whereas females were consistently more intrasexually competitive the higher the socio-economic status of their parents, males with parents of the lowest socio-economic status tended to be more intrasexually competitive than those with parents of medium socio-economic status, and nearly as intrasexually competitive as those with parents of high socio-economic status. Only among adolescents with parents of low socio-economic status were males more intrasexually competitive than females. Among males and females, higher levels of intrasexual competitiveness were related to a higher family income, to a higher occupational status of the father as well as of the mother, and to a higher educational level of the mother. Only among females were higher levels of intrasexual competitiveness associated with a higher educational level of the father. Males whose fathers had only elementary education had a relatively high level of intrasexual competitiveness. The results are discussed in the context of the multifaceted nature of human status, and the potential relevance of intrasexual competitiveness for individuals of high versus low social status.
Objective. To construct a risk score for adolescent mental health problems among children, using parental data only and without potentially stigmatizing mental health items. Methods. We prospectively derived a prediction model for mental health problems at age 16 using data from parent report on 1676 children aged 11 from the general population. Mental health problems were considered present in the top 15% scores on the combined Achenbach ratings. The model was validated in a separate cohort (n = 336) children. A risk score was constructed for practical application. Results. In the derivation cohort, 248 (14.8%) had mental health problems at follow-up. Predictors in the final model were gender, maternal educational level, family history of psychopathology, math achievement at school, frequently moving house, severe disease or death in the family, parental divorce, and child frustration level. The model was well calibrated, showed good discriminatory power (area under the curve 0.75; 95% confidence interval 0.72-0.78), and validated well. The risk score stratified children in classes of risk ranging from 6.6% to 52.2%. Conclusions. A risk score based on parent-reported data only and without mental health items accurately estimated the 5-year risk of adolescent mental health problems among children from the general population. Children with high risk may benefit from further monitoring or intervention. The risk score may be particularly suitable when parents want to circumvent an explicit discussion on possible mental health problems of their child.
Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.