Dekovic, M., ten Have, M., Vollebergh, W. A. M., Pels, T., Oosterwegel, A., Wissink, I. B. et al. (2006). The cross-cultural equivalence of parental rearing measure: EMBU-C. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 22, 85-91.
We examined the cross-cultural equivalence of a widely used instrument that assesses perceived parental rearing, the EMBU-C, among native Dutch and immigrant adolescents living in The Netherlands. The results of a multigroup confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the factor structure of the EMBU-C, consisting of three latent factors (Warmth, Rejection, and Overprotection), and reliabilities of these scales are similar in both samples. These findings lend further support for the factorial and construct validity of this instrument. The comparison of perceived child rearing between native Dutch and immigrant adolescents showed cultural differences in only one of the assessed dimensions: Immigrant adolescents perceive their parents as more overprotective than do Dutch adolescents.
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