Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the relative importance of self-, parent-, and teacher-reported problem behavior for initial specialist mental health care use in adolescence and the extent to which the relative importance of each informant changes over time. Methods. Data from the Dutch community-based cohort study TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) were linked to administrative records of specialist mental health care organizations. Self-, parent-, and teacher-reported internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed at ages 11, 13, and 16 years, with self-reported problems also assessed at age 19 years. The study included 1,478 adolescents, of whom 19.8% had administrative records between January 2000 (age 9 years) and December 2011 (age 21 years). Results. After effects of internalizing and externalizing problems were adjusted for each other and for sociodemographic correlates, internalizing problems, but not externalizing problems, predicted initial specialist mental health care use. Teacher reports mainly predicted initial specialist care between the ages of 11 and 13 years (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-2.02; P < .001), parent reports mainly predicted initial specialist care between the ages of 13 and 16 years (HR = 1.47; 95% CI, = 1.13-1.91; P = .004), and self-reports mainly predicted initial specialist care between the ages of 16 and 19 years (HR = 1.61; 95% CI, = 1.25-2.08; P < .001) and between the ages 19 and 21 years (HR = 1.50; 95% CI, 1.10-2.05; P = .011). Conclusions. Teachers, parents, and adolescents are the driving force behind initial specialist care at consecutive phases in adolescence. Future research should assess whether improving the problem recognition of teachers in secondary education and educating young adults about mental health problems are effective ways of reducing the treatment gap.
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Dutch article, but published in English in 2017:
Background. Various sources indicate that mental disorders are the leading contributor to the burden of disease among youth. An important determinant of functioning is current mental health status. This study investigated whether psychiatric history has additional predictive power when predicting individual differences in functional outcomes. Method. We used data from the Dutch TRAILS study in which 1778 youths were followed from pre-adolescence into young adulthood (retention 80%). Of those, 1584 youths were successfully interviewed, at age 19, using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) to assess current and past CIDI-DSM-IV mental disorders. Four outcome domains were assessed at the same time: economic (e.g. academic achievement, social benefits, financial difficulties), social (early motherhood, interpersonal conflicts, antisocial behavior), psychological (e.g. suicidality, subjective well-being, loneliness), and health behavior (e.g. smoking, problematic alcohol, cannabis use). Results. Out of the 19 outcomes, 14 were predicted by both current and past disorders, three only by past disorders (receiving social benefits, psychiatric hospitalization, adolescent motherhood), and two only by current disorder (absenteeism, obesity). Which type of disorders was most important depended on the outcome. Adjusted for current disorder, past internalizing disorders predicted in particular psychological outcomes while externalizing disorders predicted in particular health behavior outcomes. Economic and social outcomes were predicted by a history of co-morbidity of internalizing and externalizing disorder. The risk of problematic cannabis use and alcohol consumption dropped with a history of internalizing disorder. Conclusion. To understand current functioning, it is necessary to examine both current and past psychiatric status.