Monshouwer K., Smit F., Ruiter M., Ormel J., Verhulst F.C. , Vollebergh W.A.M., Oldehinkel A.J. (2012), Identifying target groups for the prevention of depression in early adolescence: the TRAILS study. Journal of Affective Disorders 138 (2012) 287–294
Background: Depression in adolescence is associated with long-term adverse consequences. The aim of the present study is to identify target groups at increased risk of developing depression in early adolescence, such that prevention is associated with the largest health benefit at population-level for the least effort. Methods: The analyses were conducted on data of the first (age range 10-12) and fourth (age range 17-20) wave of a population-based cohort study (N=1,538). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to assess onset of major depression in early adolescence. High-risk groups were identified using exposure rate, incidence rate, and population attributable fraction. Results: Prevention of depression onset in early adolescence is best targeted at children with one of the following risk profiles: a high body mass index in combination with (1) maternal depression (2) female gender, and (3) parental emotional rejection. Limitations: Age of onset of depression was assessed retrospectively. Conclusions: Only a few risk indicators are needed to identify a relatively small group which accounts for a substantial percentage of the new cases of depression in early adolescence.
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Stavrakakis N., P. de Jonge, J. Ormel, A.J. Oldehinkel (2012). Bidirectional Prospective Associations between Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms. The TRAILS study. Journal of Adolescent Health 2012; 50:503-8
Purpose: Low levels of physical activity have been shown to be associated with depression in adults. The few studies that focused on adolescents yielded mixed and inconsistent results. Efforts to examine the direction of this relationship have been inconclusive up to now. The aims of this study were therefore to investigate (1) the direction of the inverse association between physical activity and depressive symptoms over time and (2) whether these associations are specific to particular clusters of depressive symptoms in adolescents. Methods: Depressive symptoms and physical activity were assessed in a population sample of adolescents (N=2230), who were measured at three waves between age 10 and age 17. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Affective Problems scale of the Youth Self-Report (YSR) and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), while physical activity was operationalized as the amount of time spent on physical exercise. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine bidirectional effects of physical activity and depressive symptoms over time. Results: We found significant cross-lagged paths from prior physical activity to later depression as well as from prior depression to later physical activity (beta values= -.039 to -.047). After subdividing depression into affective and somatic symptoms, the affective symptoms were reciprocally related to physical activity, while the paths between somatic symptoms and physical activity did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: An inverse bidirectional association between physical activity and general depressive symptoms was observed. This association was restricted to affective symptoms.
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Verbeek, T., Bockting, C.L., van Pampus, M.G., Ormel, J., Meijer, J.L., Hartman, C.A., Burger, H. Postpartum depression predicts offspring mental health problems in adolescence independently of parental lifetime psychopathology. J Affect Disord. 2012 Feb;136(3):948-54.
Van Deurzen, P.A.M., Buitelaar, J.K., Brunnekreef, J.A., Ormel, J., Minderaa, R.B., Hartman, C.A., Huizink, A.C., Speckens, A.E.M., Oldehinkel, A.J. & Slaats-Willemse, D.I.E. Response time variability and response inhibition predict affective problems in adolescent girls, not in boys: the TRAILS study. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2012 21:5, 277-287